Chickpea or chana is a very important pulse crop that grows like a seed of a plant named Cicer arietinum in the Leguminosae family. It contains 25% proteins, which is the maximum provided by any pulse and 60% carbohydrates. It places third in the importance list of the food legumes that are cultivated throughout the world. Chana is used as an edible seed and is also used for making flour throughout the globe. There are mainly two types of chickpea produced i.e. Desi and Kabuli. Chana is usually suited to those areas having relatively cooler climatic conditions and a low level of rainfall. It yields best when grown on sandy, loam soils having an appropriate drainage system as this crop is very sensitive to the excess water availability and a lack of such a system can hamper the yield levels.
Chickpea is seeded in the months of September to November (Rabi Season) in India. The maturity period of desi type chickpea is 95-105 days and kabuli type chickpea is 100-110 days. Harvesting of the plant is done when its leaves start drying and shedding and can be done directly or with the help of a harvester. In India, it is harvested in February, March, and April.